Metaphysical Necessity: Or Metaphysical Platonism

Metaphysical necessity, or foundationalism, is one of the central questions of philosophy and the most important concept in Platonism. Metaphysical necessity asserts that everything that exists, to avoid epistemological nihilism, must have a foundation. Plato asserted that this foundation is the realm of the forms, or ideas. From Plato to Hegel, metaphysical necessity has been … Continue reading Metaphysical Necessity: Or Metaphysical Platonism

Cicero: On Duties and Obligations

Cicero, perhaps the most famous of the Roman philosophers, wrote an influential treatise on duties and obligations published after his death.  De Officiis, along with his Republic/Commonwealth and Laws, is Cicero’s longstanding legacy to the West.  In fact, On Obligations was widely influential in that it influenced Sts. Augustine and Thomas Aquinas, becoming an integral … Continue reading Cicero: On Duties and Obligations

Aristotle’s Physics

Aristotle’s Physics has had a profound and far-reaching legacy, in many ways, Aristotle’s work has shaped our understanding of nature and the natural – especially as it emerged from Book II.  In Book II Aristotle begins to delineate and distinguish between “of things that exist…by nature” (ontology) and “some from other causes.”  Nature is associated … Continue reading Aristotle’s Physics

Aristotle’s “Political Animal”

Aristotle famously said in Politics that “man is a political animal.”  What did he mean by that?  Why is it important?  Aristotle’s political philosophy is dependent upon his understanding of human anthropology and ontology, as well as teleology.  Unlike today, Aristotle’s statement is not meant to signify that humans should be “politically active,” i.e. activists.  … Continue reading Aristotle’s “Political Animal”