Rousseau: The Social Contract, II

The first two books of the Social Contract are the most important and enduring within Rousseau’s tract, though the fourth book is also important for understanding the establishment of civil religion and the French Revolution’s anti-Catholic militancy.  Nevertheless, the second book of the Social Contract continues to examine the relationship of sovereignty and general will … Continue reading Rousseau: The Social Contract, II

Rousseau: The Social Contract, I

Jean-Jacques Rousseau is a widely important philosopher of the mid to late 18th century.  Born in Geneva, but making his name in France, Rousseau is associated with having given the intellectual foundation for the French Revolution, is remembered as the Prophet of the Romantics with regard to analysis and criticism of emerging (sterile) bourgeois materialistic … Continue reading Rousseau: The Social Contract, I

Hobbes’s Leviathan, Part V

In finishing the first part of Thomas Hobbes’s magisterial and path breaking work Leviathan, we are transitioning out of Hobbes’s anthropology and state of nature and toward the artificial construction that is the political.  The rise of covenant political theory is foundational to political liberalism, and Chapters 14-16 deal with what Hobbes means by covenant … Continue reading Hobbes’s Leviathan, Part V

Carl Schmitt: The Friend-Enemy Distinction

In one of his early and most well-known works, the Concept of the Political, Carl Schmitt endeavors to explore what the political is and is not.  There are multiple layers to Schmitt’s thinking and his criticism of liberalism, in particular, and where he sees himself in the grand scheme of Hegelian epochal historicism and the … Continue reading Carl Schmitt: The Friend-Enemy Distinction

Reading Ibn Khaldun’s Muqaddimah, Part VIII

We turn now through a marathon reduction of the rest of Chapter III in this reading of the Muqaddimah.  Why you ask, am I condensing remarks 19-52 into one post when I have spent so much time parsing out longer commentaries and explanations from the previous chapters and remarks?  Partially because the rest of Chapter … Continue reading Reading Ibn Khaldun’s Muqaddimah, Part VIII