Metaphysical Necessity: Or Metaphysical Platonism

Metaphysical necessity, or foundationalism, is one of the central questions of philosophy and the most important concept in Platonism. Metaphysical necessity asserts that everything that exists, to avoid epistemological nihilism, must have a foundation. Plato asserted that this foundation is the realm of the forms, or ideas. From Plato to Hegel, metaphysical necessity has been … Continue reading Metaphysical Necessity: Or Metaphysical Platonism

Plotinus: On Philosophical Dialectic (Ennead 1.3)

Plotinus is not the first philosopher to concern himself with dialectic but he is among the most famous.  The Platonist tradition with Socrates and Plato already established two important dialectical conceptions: the conversational dialectic (Socratic dialectic) in which opposing parties (or individuals) discuss a matter and arrive at a conclusion from drawing the contrast between … Continue reading Plotinus: On Philosophical Dialectic (Ennead 1.3)

Plotinus: The Virtues (Ennead 1.2)

Plotinus’s second tractate of the first Ennead is a commentary over the division of virtues.  This is commonplace in ancient philosophy and theology.  For instance, Christianity divides the cardinal virtues (justice, prudence, fortitude, and temperance) and theological virtues (faith, hope, and love).  Plotinus, in this section of his Enneads, separates the “civic virtues” with the … Continue reading Plotinus: The Virtues (Ennead 1.2)

Plotinus: Animate Man and the “Fall” of the Soul (Ennead 1.1)

Plotinus is infinitely important and influential in philosophy despite his limited name recognition and readability.  Plotinus was a 3rd century Greek philosopher who is the founder of Late Platonism, or neo-Platonism.  Plotinus’s only published work is The Enneads, which read like a teacher lecturing his students.  And that’s what he was; Porphyry – one of … Continue reading Plotinus: Animate Man and the “Fall” of the Soul (Ennead 1.1)

Introduction to German Romanticism

I'm beginning a series where I'm going to slowly move through the history of the German Idealists and Romantics.  Those interested in understanding the most important philosophical movement of the late modern period.  Clink on the link to the YT recording/video. Introduction to German Romanticism: Where I give a whirlwind tour of the history of … Continue reading Introduction to German Romanticism