Hegel: Dialectical Self-Consciousness (Lordship-Bondsman, sec. 178-196 Phenomenology of Spirit)

Apart from the preface, and other famous sections within the Phenomenology of Spirit, the most famous section of Hegel’s Phenomenology is his commentary of lordship and bondage in self-consciousness.  For Hegel, self-consciousness is in itself for itself.  However, the consummation of self-consciousness—that is, self-understanding—depends on the other.  Hegel’s ontology is necessarily dialectic insofar that it … Continue reading Hegel: Dialectical Self-Consciousness (Lordship-Bondsman, sec. 178-196 Phenomenology of Spirit)

Jean Paul Sartre: Bad Faith

The one theme from Sartre’s magnum opus, Being and Nothingness, that stuck was his commentary on “Bad Faith.”  Ignorant atheists who have never read Sartre have employed Sartrean language to refer to religious faith as the bad faith that Sartre is discussing even though it is not.  Furthermore, the concept of bad faith is included … Continue reading Jean Paul Sartre: Bad Faith

Roger Scruton’s Lebenswelt (Soul of the World)

Roger Scruton is one of the most eminent English-speaking philosophers; a scholar in aesthetics, political philosophy, Spinoza, and Kant (and subsequently Kantianism and post-Kantianism), he is a well-known conservative in the proper sense and use of the term.  A skeptic toward market fundamentalism, a critic of the faux virtue and “care” pretentiously claimed in socialism, … Continue reading Roger Scruton’s Lebenswelt (Soul of the World)

Hegel’s Phenomenology: Preface, II (24-37)

Sections 24-37 of Hegel’s Phenomenology contain the his system of science (knowledge) or philosophy.  Having laid out the groundworks of what he is dealing with, namely how do we avoid nihilism and come to actual knowing which is the embodiment of objective substance within the subjective self (a form of transcendental phenomenology), Hegel moves into … Continue reading Hegel’s Phenomenology: Preface, II (24-37)

Hegel’s Phenomenology: Preface, I (1-23)

Georg W.F. Hegel stands alongside the likes of Plato, Aristotle, Augustine, Francis Bacon and Rene Descartes as one of the most consequential philosophers who ever lived. Nineteenth century philosopher, especially nineteenth century continental (non-British) philosophy is largely indebted to him (though he, in turn, is indebted to Plato, Plotinus, and Augustine).  The Phenomenology of Spirit … Continue reading Hegel’s Phenomenology: Preface, I (1-23)

Hegel’s Dialectic and Sublation

Hegel’s philosophy is generally considered to be underpinned by the dialectic.  Hegel is not the first philosopher to present the dialectic; dialectic is found in Greek and Christian philosophy – and since Hegel is largely drawing from Greek and Christian philosophy it shouldn’t be a surprise he’s in the dialectical camp.  What Hegel did do … Continue reading Hegel’s Dialectic and Sublation

Hobbes’s Leviathan: Part I

Thomas Hobbes is one of the most consequential and important modern philosophers.  In many ways he helped to shift Western consciousness in philosophy from God, the Transcendentals (the Good, True, and Beautiful), and the soul to materialism, physicalism, and mechanicalism.  This shift is what historian and philosopher Mark Lilla calls “the great separation” in his … Continue reading Hobbes’s Leviathan: Part I