Metaphysical necessity, or foundationalism, is one of the central questions of philosophy and the most important concept in Platonism. Metaphysical necessity asserts that everything that exists, to avoid epistemological nihilism, must have a foundation. Plato asserted that this foundation is the realm of the forms, or ideas. From Plato to Hegel, metaphysical necessity has been … Continue reading Metaphysical Necessity: Or Metaphysical Platonism
We previously examined and summarized the historical circumstances, influences, and sketched overview of Friedrich Schelling’s naturphilosophie (philosophy of nature) here. To restate, Schelling’s main emphasis was the grounding of reality in an organic/natural world which organically develops to consciousness in the phenomenal realm of space and time. This teleological evolution ties the present with the … Continue reading Friedrich Schelling’s Naturphilosophie, Part II
The opening chapters of Heidegger’s Being and Time establishes the structural reality of existential being. Again, Heidegger is attempting several things in his great treatise, but the boiled down “to the point” project is that Heidegger is attempting to recover the philosophy of metaphysical ontology (being) and, by this recovery, avoid the problems of nihilism, … Continue reading Heidegger: Being-the-World as Being-With
Martin Heidegger rose to prominence with the publication of his magisterial ontological treatise Being and Time. The work opens with a reflection on the nature of being, “Being is the most universal concept,” Heidegger declares, and that the question of being “has today been forgotten.” Why did Heidegger write his seemingly incomprehensible work and to … Continue reading Heidegger and the Crisis of Philosophy
Sir Francis is the father of modern philosophy. He has been described as the “greatest philosopher” by John Dewey, and considered one of the three greatest men by Thomas Jefferson (alongside Newton and Locke). Bacon’s Novum Organum (or Instrument of the New Science, or just New Science) was a momentous change in the history of … Continue reading Francis Bacon’s Conquest of Nature
In beginning a series of explanatory overviews of various schools of political philosophy, I have started to decide with the most ancient of the schools of thought: Conservatism. For English-speaking people, conservatism is a term that has infiltrated public consciousness but few seem to understand it. In particular the two greatest groups of offenders of … Continue reading Political Philosophy: What is Conservatism?
Among Immanuel Kant’s famous essays is his essay “To Eternal Peace” (alternatively titled “On Perpetual Peace”). In this essay, published in 1795 right at the onset of the French Revolutionary Wars, Kant follows up on his philosophy of history by offering deep contemplation on the nature of unfolding history and constitutions to peace among nations. … Continue reading Kant: On Perpetual Peace