Metaphysical Necessity: Or Metaphysical Platonism

Metaphysical necessity, or foundationalism, is one of the central questions of philosophy and the most important concept in Platonism. Metaphysical necessity asserts that everything that exists, to avoid epistemological nihilism, must have a foundation. Plato asserted that this foundation is the realm of the forms, or ideas. From Plato to Hegel, metaphysical necessity has been … Continue reading Metaphysical Necessity: Or Metaphysical Platonism

Nietzsche, Life, and Nihilism

This will be a far shorter reflection, or exposition, than is usually the case for me here.  However, I want to address one of the paradoxical problems when examining the philosophy of Friedrich Nietzsche.  Nietzsche, as most know, was a famous philosopher for his awkward humanism and relational ties to Nazism (wrongly appropriate but not … Continue reading Nietzsche, Life, and Nihilism

Joseph De Maistre: The Metaphysics of the French Revolution

“Evil has nothing in common with life; it cannot create, since its power is purely negative.  Evil is the schism of being; it is not true.  Now what distinguishes the French Revolution and makes it an event unique in history is that it is radically bad.”  Those are the words of Franco-Savoyard lawyer and diplomat … Continue reading Joseph De Maistre: The Metaphysics of the French Revolution

Jean Paul Sartre: Bad Faith

The one theme from Sartre’s magnum opus, Being and Nothingness, that stuck was his commentary on “Bad Faith.”  Ignorant atheists who have never read Sartre have employed Sartrean language to refer to religious faith as the bad faith that Sartre is discussing even though it is not.  Furthermore, the concept of bad faith is included … Continue reading Jean Paul Sartre: Bad Faith

Johann Hamann: Philosophy of Language

Johann Hamann is one of the most understudied and unknown philosophers, especially in the English-speaking world.  A figure of tremendous importance to history, who was called the “Magus of the North” and the “brightest star” by Johann Wolfgang Goethe, Hamann came to be an influential father of the Sturm und Drang arts movement in Germany, … Continue reading Johann Hamann: Philosophy of Language

Plotinus: On Philosophical Dialectic (Ennead 1.3)

Plotinus is not the first philosopher to concern himself with dialectic but he is among the most famous.  The Platonist tradition with Socrates and Plato already established two important dialectical conceptions: the conversational dialectic (Socratic dialectic) in which opposing parties (or individuals) discuss a matter and arrive at a conclusion from drawing the contrast between … Continue reading Plotinus: On Philosophical Dialectic (Ennead 1.3)

Jean Paul Sartre: On Nothingness

Jean Paul Sartre was among the most famous of the modern existentialists and phenomenologists, perhaps second only to Martin Heidegger.  Sartre’s great text of fame was his “essay on ontology,” Being and Nothingness.  In typical French fashion, the text is weighty, dense, and draws heavily from the history of philosophy, especially Christianity, Bacon, Descartes, Hegel, … Continue reading Jean Paul Sartre: On Nothingness