Immanuel Kant: Preface to Critique of Pure Reason

Immanuel Kant is a philosopher with a divisive history.  In the English speaking world, he is generally passed over as an inaugurator of the “irrationalist” tradition of Continental Philosophy.  Bertrand Russell, for instance, regarded Kant as a second rate philosopher whose more important contributions to philosophy was ethics rather than what he is most remembered … Continue reading Immanuel Kant: Preface to Critique of Pure Reason

Roger Scruton’s Lebenswelt (Soul of the World)

Roger Scruton is one of the most eminent English-speaking philosophers; a scholar in aesthetics, political philosophy, Spinoza, and Kant (and subsequently Kantianism and post-Kantianism), he is a well-known conservative in the proper sense and use of the term.  A skeptic toward market fundamentalism, a critic of the faux virtue and “care” pretentiously claimed in socialism, … Continue reading Roger Scruton’s Lebenswelt (Soul of the World)

Kant: On Perpetual Peace

Among Immanuel Kant’s famous essays is his essay “To Eternal Peace” (alternatively titled “On Perpetual Peace”).  In this essay, published in 1795 right at the onset of the French Revolutionary Wars, Kant follows up on his philosophy of history by offering deep contemplation on the nature of unfolding history and constitutions to peace among nations.  … Continue reading Kant: On Perpetual Peace

Kant: Idea of Universal History with Cosmopolitan Intent

Immanuel Kant wrote a number of important books, but he was also an important essayist—and some of his most important philosophical reflections, with longstanding and consequential legacies, were written as essays.  One of his most famous essays, with a rich consequential legacy, was “Idea of Universal History with Cosmopolitan Intent.”  One of the first elaborations … Continue reading Kant: Idea of Universal History with Cosmopolitan Intent

Johann Fichte’s Der geschlossene Handelsstaat

Arguably the most important philosophical, literary, and intellectual movement of the last two centuries was not Marxism, but Romanticism – even Marxism drew upon Romanticism.  Romanticism influenced everything from arts and literature, to philosophy, politics, economics, nationalism, radicalism, conservatism, and revolutionary philosophies.  Among the most important of the early Romantics was Johann Gottlieb Fichte, a … Continue reading Johann Fichte’s Der geschlossene Handelsstaat