Friedrich Schelling’s Naturphilosophie, Part II

We previously examined and summarized the historical circumstances, influences, and sketched overview of Friedrich Schelling’s naturphilosophie (philosophy of nature) here. To restate, Schelling’s main emphasis was the grounding of reality in an organic/natural world which organically develops to consciousness in the phenomenal realm of space and time. This teleological evolution ties the present with the … Continue reading Friedrich Schelling’s Naturphilosophie, Part II

Dante’s Inferno, III: Hell as an Allegorical Contrast to Catholic Teaching

In our exploration of Dante’s Inferno, I have already explored the general construction of Hell in its two tiers in the first part of this essay series, and I then explored the relationship between Dante and Virgil in the second part of this series.  This final part will highlight in some greater detail what has … Continue reading Dante’s Inferno, III: Hell as an Allegorical Contrast to Catholic Teaching

Reading Augustine’s City of God: The Two Cities

Augustine’s City of God is one of the great works of Western literature: philosophy, cultural criticism, theology, and development of Christian doctrines.  At 22 books, and over 1,000 pages (most translations), the City of God is not light reading but is generally considered one of the most masterful works ever produced in the Western philosophical … Continue reading Reading Augustine’s City of God: The Two Cities

The Great Divide: Political Philosophy, Ancient vs. Modern

The history of political philosophy is often divided between the classics (or ancients) in contradistinction to the moderns.  Political philosophy, from the time of Socrates and Plato, has always been regarded as the queen of the philosophical enterprises because it most pertains to the question of being human.  Hence, political philosophy is necessarily tied to … Continue reading The Great Divide: Political Philosophy, Ancient vs. Modern

Hobbes’s Leviathan, Part IV

Proceeding to reading Chapters 10-13 we hit the meat of Hobbes’s Leviathan.  We approach his famous commentary on the state of nature, wherein we are burdened by the “war of every man against everyman” or “war of all against all” (from the Latin edition: Bellum omnium contra omnes) and his bleak assessment that life in … Continue reading Hobbes’s Leviathan, Part IV

Hobbes’s Leviathan, Part III

The eighth chapter of Leviathan is one of the most important of the entire book, and it is one with profound implications concerning the political, even if the exoteric discussion is about intellectual virtues arising from passions and the motions of the passions.  If we recall back to Chapter 3, Hobbes defined “rational” as the … Continue reading Hobbes’s Leviathan, Part III

Hobbes’s Leviathan, Part II

As we continue to read through Thomas Hobbes’s Leviathan, an actual reading of the text again causes much confusion to readers who have swallowed the false pill of the myth of the “Enlightenment” and the “Age of Reason.”  In this post we will examine two crucial chapters, 6 and 7, and what the implications are … Continue reading Hobbes’s Leviathan, Part II