Kant: Idea of Universal History with Cosmopolitan Intent

Immanuel Kant wrote a number of important books, but he was also an important essayist—and some of his most important philosophical reflections, with longstanding and consequential legacies, were written as essays.  One of his most famous essays, with a rich consequential legacy, was “Idea of Universal History with Cosmopolitan Intent.”  One of the first elaborations … Continue reading Kant: Idea of Universal History with Cosmopolitan Intent

The Greatness of Athens: Pericles’s Funeral Oration

In reading Thucydides, much attention is paid to the many speeches in The History of the Peloponnesian War.  Many philosophers have seen Thucydides providing his own commentary on the nature of philosophy in these speeches – after all, Thucydides wasn’t really present at any of the speeches.  They are recreations by Thucydides where he explores … Continue reading The Greatness of Athens: Pericles’s Funeral Oration

Thucydides’ Athenian Exceptionalism

Exceptionalism is a topic that comes up a lot in political discussions and philosophy seminars.  What is exceptionalism, who is exceptional, why are they exceptional, is exceptionalism just a smoke-screen for imperialism?  so on and so forth.  Also, it has become somewhat common since 2003 to begin referring to America as “the New Rome,” even … Continue reading Thucydides’ Athenian Exceptionalism

The Roman Stoics: Cato and Seneca

Cato and Seneca (the Youngers) are two of the most important pre-Christian Roman philosophers.  While Cicero is the most famous of the Stoic philosophers, the issue of them being “stoic” philosophers is a matter of strong contention since they’re not fully “stoic” in the original Greek sense.  Stoicism is another classical rationalist school of thought.  … Continue reading The Roman Stoics: Cato and Seneca