Theodor Adorno is probably the most important 20th century Marxist philosopher, sociologist, and social critic. The fundamental crux of Adorno is his critique of the Enlightenment and mass culture—typified by places like Hollywood—as a form of self-enslavement and bourgeois imperialism. But instead of the superstructure directly engaging in clamping its controls over people, Adorno argued … Continue reading Adorno on Commodity Fetishism, Mass Culture, and Self-Enslavement
In our exploration of Dante’s Inferno, I have already explored the general construction of Hell in its two tiers in the first part of this essay series, and I then explored the relationship between Dante and Virgil in the second part of this series. This final part will highlight in some greater detail what has … Continue reading Dante’s Inferno, III: Hell as an Allegorical Contrast to Catholic Teaching
We last left off with Hegel’s philosophy of history with the failure of the Aristocratic Age to produce universal freedom. If we recall, the Aristocratic Age, that age of great movement, creativity, and the arts, and the dialectic between the aristocrats and plebeians, failed because there was no notion that all men were equal. This … Continue reading Hegel on History, IV: The Age of Freedom and End of History
In beginning a series of explanatory overviews of various schools of political philosophy, I have started to decide with the most ancient of the schools of thought: Conservatism. For English-speaking people, conservatism is a term that has infiltrated public consciousness but few seem to understand it. In particular the two greatest groups of offenders of … Continue reading Political Philosophy: What is Conservatism?
Roger Scruton is one of the most eminent English-speaking philosophers; a scholar in aesthetics, political philosophy, Spinoza, and Kant (and subsequently Kantianism and post-Kantianism), he is a well-known conservative in the proper sense and use of the term. A skeptic toward market fundamentalism, a critic of the faux virtue and “care” pretentiously claimed in socialism, … Continue reading Roger Scruton’s Lebenswelt (Soul of the World)
Hegel’s social and political philosophy was of profound importance in mid nineteenth century Germany, especially within the Kingdom of Prussia where he spent his latter days. It is sometimes said that Hegel believed Prussia was the end of history, that Prussia was the fulfillment of the socio-political, constitutional, and ethical progression of the Spirit in … Continue reading Hegel’s Social and Political Philosophy (Philosophy of Right)
Georg W.F. Hegel stands alongside the likes of Plato, Aristotle, Augustine, Francis Bacon and Rene Descartes as one of the most consequential philosophers who ever lived. Nineteenth century philosopher, especially nineteenth century continental (non-British) philosophy is largely indebted to him (though he, in turn, is indebted to Plato, Plotinus, and Augustine). The Phenomenology of Spirit … Continue reading Hegel’s Phenomenology: Preface, I (1-23)